Institut des
NanoSciences de Paris
insp
insp
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Nanostructures and optics

Plasmonic crystals : fabrication and coupling to nanocrystals

A neighbouring metallic surface can induce large modifications of the fluorescence of a nano-emitter : excitation and emission enhancement by interferences, emission redirection by mirror effect... We have demonstrated, by studying single nanocrystals near (20-300 nm) a gold surface, an enhancement of the nanocrystal decay rate by a factor 7 and an increase of the detected light from the nanocrystal by a factor 2.5. However, a large part of the decay enhancement corresponds to the creation of surface plasmon modes, and these mdoes are non radiative in the case of a plane surface, so that the plasmon energy is lost in terms of light emission.

For this reason, we are now studying the coupling of nanocrystals to metallic surfaces with a periodic pattern (thus constituting plasmonic crystals). The periodicity of these structures provides the phase matching between the plasmonic and radiative photonic modes, in order to collect the energy given to the plasmonic modes. We have established a protocol to fabricate periodic metallic surfaces based on self-assembly and opals. A plasmonic mode has been evidenced on these structures ; its dispersion relation was in reasonable agreement with the theoretical relation given by the phase-matching condition. The fluorescence of an ensemble of nanocrystals deposited on these surfaces shows a 15-20 % supplementary emission which we attribute to plasmon-mediated radiation ; we have developped an original method to estimate this quantity, which leads to the value of the plasmon extraction efficiency.

Figure 1 : Left : plasmonic crystal sample fabricated at the INSP (périod : 400 nm). Right : specular reflectivity spectra of a plasmonic crystal (in p polarization) at several angles. One can observe a dip, characteristic of the excitation of a plasmonic mode by the incident light beam.

 

The plasmonic modes of these structures were studied by photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) in collaboration with L. Douillard at the CEA. PEEM provides a map of the electric field excited optically on the surface of a metal, with typical spatial resolution 25 nm. Our measures evidence different plasmonic modes (hot spots, SPP) as well as the coupling between these modes and the role of disorder in the position of hot spots and in the coupling of light to SPPs (lauchers).

 

Collaborations :

- Jean - Pierre Hermier at the GEMAC (Versailles)

- Benoît Dubertret at the LPEM (ESPCI, Paris)

- L. Douillard at the CEA

 

Communications :

- H. Frederich, C. Lethiec, J. Laverdant, C. Schwob, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, L. Coolen and A. Maître, Plasmon excitation and induced emission with a plasmonic self-organized cristal, Advanced Architectures in Photonics (AAP 2014), Prague (Czech Rep.), 21-24 september 2014

- H. Frederich, C. Lethiec, J. Laverdant, C. Schwob, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, L. Coolen and A. Maître, Plasmon excitation and induced emission with a plasmonic self-organized cristal, International Conference on Nanoscience + Technology (ICN+T), Vail (USA), 21-25 july 2014

- H. Frederich, C. Lethiec, J. Laverdant, C. Schwob, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, L. Coolen and A. Maître, Plasmon excitation and induced emission with a plasmonic self-organized cristal, 16th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 14, Graz (Autria), 6-10 july 2014

- Hugo Frederich, Fangfang Wen, Julien Laverdant, Willy Daney de Marcillac, Catherine Schwob, Laurent Coolen and Agnès Maître, Determination of the surface plasmon polariton extraction efficiency from a self-assembled plasmonic crystal, Plasmonics DOI 10.1007/s11468-014-9697-0 (2014)

- Hugo Frederich, Clotilde Lethiec, Fangfang Wen, Julien Laverdant, Catherine Schwob, Traian Popescu, Ludovic Douillard, Laurent Coolen and Agnès Maître, Plasmon-induced emission and broadband absorption with a plasmonic crystal, Opto Photonics West (San Francisco 01-06 february 2014)

- H. Frederich, C. Lethiec, F. Wen, J. Laverdant, C. Schwob,T. Popescu, L. Douillard, L. Coolen, A. Maître, Broadband visible light absorption and plasmons emission through a self organized plasmonic crystal, Surface Plasmon Polariton 6, Ottawa (27-31 may 2013)

- H. Frederich, C. Lethiec, F. Wen, J. Laverdant, C. Schwob, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, L. Coolen and A. Maître, Plasmon excitation and induced emission with a plasmonic self-organized crystal, Spie Photonics Europe (Brussels, 14-18 april 2014)

- H. Frederich, F. Wen, J. Laverdant, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, W. Daney de Marcillac, A. Maître, Light-Plasmon coupling with a macroscopic plasmonic crystal, Journées de la Matière Condensée, Montpellier, août 2012

- Hugo Frederich, Fangfang Wen, Julien Laverdant, Laurent Coolen, Catherine Schwob et Agnès Maître, Coupling to a plasmonic crystal : broadband absorption and far field plasmons re-emission, International Conference on Nanoscience + Technology (ICN+T), Paris, 23-27 juillet 2012

- H. Frederich, F. Wen, J. Laverdant, L. Coolen, C. Schwob et A. Maître, Isotropic broadband absorption by a macroscopic self-organized plasmonic crystal, Opt. Express 19, 24424-24433 (2011).

- Céline Vion, Piernicola Spinicelli, Laurent Coolen, Catherine Schwob, Carlos Barthou, Paul Benalloul, Jean-Marc Frigerio, Jean-Pierre Hermier, et Agnès Maître, Interactions with surface plasmons : a way to control the fluorescence of single quantum dots, Nanophotonics, Conference 7712 - Proceedings of SPIE Volume 7712, Arc (Belgique), 12 - 16 Avril 2010

- Céline Vion, Piernicola Spinicelli, Laurent Coolen, Carlos Barthou, Jean-Marc Frigerio, Jean-Pierre Hermier et Agnès Maître, Controlled modification of Single colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescence through interactions with gold surface plasmons, Opt. Express 18, 7440-7455 (2010)

- Céline Vion, Piernicola Spinicelli, Laurent Coolen, Catherine Schwob, Carlos Barthou, Paul Benalloul, Jean-Marc Frigerio, Jean-Pierre Hermier, Agnès Maître, Controlled fluorescence of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots through interaction with gold surface plasmons, Fourth International Conference on Surface Plasmons Photonics (SPP4), Juin 21-26, 2009, Amsterdam, Pays-Bas.

- A Maître, C. Vion, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen, J.-P. Hermier, Modification of the spontaneous emission of an emittor close to a gold interface, European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-IQEC) (Munich, Allemagne, juin 2007)

- C. Vion, J.-M. Frigerio, A. Maître, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen et J.-P. Hermier, Controlled modification of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescence through interactions with gold surface plasmons, Spie Europe photonics (Strasbourg, avril 2008)